Friday, September 6, 2019
To what extent does prejudice affect Essay Example for Free
To what extent does prejudice affect Essay Prejudice and Racism are very closely related to each other in our society. To stereotype someone is when we apply a series of traits to them based on one trait that resembles their identity in a particular group. Some examples to stereotyping would be Asians are hardworking and studious, black people steal a lot, and many others. This very closely relates with the definition of prejudice. Prejudice is a preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience. Most of the people who judge people on their particular culture using stereotypes do not actually have an experience of seeing or experiencing that particular stereotype. They are basing it off of knowledge they have received or came across from other people. Very few actually have experiences of encountering the stereotypical character of a certain group and use their experience to conceive and judge the people of that certain group. We tend to categorize ourselves in different groups whether it is through cultural differences, race differences, or difference in interest. Why do people who have prejudices tend to stereotype? These people tend to divide people into different categories of Ã¢â¬Å"themÃ¢â¬ . They classify these people as different. Although grouping ourselves is a nature of human kind, groups of different goals, interest, race or culture tend to prejudice using stereotypes of other groups. Is it impossible for us to reduce social prejudice? Prejudice and stereotyping will always exist in parallel with these things. Instead of trying to totally get rid of prejudice and stereotyping, it is more progressive and effective to try reducing it. Given that our world is diverse and multi ethnic, it is important to understand ways to reduce social prejudice. An approach about prejudice was made by Sherif in 1966 who believed that prejudice arises out of conflict between two groups however they do not automatically lead to prejudice, but depends on the situation and relationship involved among the groups. Sheriff also claimed that prejudice can be often seen when two groups want to achieve the same goal but only one can have it, causing them to be hostile and abusive against each other. This is the Realistic Conflict Theory. Sherif conducted a study to prove this theory and this was know as the Ã¢â¬ËRobberÃ¢â¬â¢s CaveÃ¢â¬â¢ Study. This accurately displayed how competition and conflict between two groups can cause negative stereotyping and aggressive manners towards the out-group. Another example of SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s claim would be the study done by Dollard (1938) who found out that prejudice against German immigrant increased slowly in the US towns, as jobs were harder to get. This research study proves SherifÃ¢â¬â¢s claim of prejudice being built on depending on the situation and relationship between the two groups. In this case the Germans and U. S citizens had a sense of competition over jobs, leading them to have a rivalry relationship and ultimately causing prejudice against each other. ( AS Psychology). Agreeing, but also opposing to this Tajfel (1971) argued that competition is not a likely condition for group-to-group conflict. He does not completely disagree about competition being one of the reasons for prejudice among groups, but more strongly argues that the existence of an opposing group itself produces prejudice among the groups. He also argued that in-group favoritism was present in groups and called all of these behaviors the Social Identity Theory. An example of favoritism explained in the Social Identity Theory is that two opposing groups, Man U and Liverpool would more likely help people wearing the same color uniforms if they are injured Ã¢â¬â Levine et al (2005). ( AS Psychology) In the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, American psychologist Gordon Willard Allport introduced the Intergroup-contact hypothesis. The intergroup Ã¢â¬âContact Hypothesis considered of one having the opportunity to communicate with others. Through this communication they are able to understand and appreciate different points of views involving their way of life. Alport thought that issues of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination commonly occur between rival groups. AlportÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal was that properly managed contact between the groups should reduce these problems and lead to better interactions. (Psychology Today) In Robert S. FeldmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Psychology, the book states that prejudice will reduce only under certain conditions. Decades of research by psychologists lead to the discovery of three conditions. The contact needs to occur between people of relatively equal status, the contact must be close and personal; goals that they are seeking must be common goals. Through frequent contact of each other in a relationship where the status is equal, prejudice can be reduced in certain ways. Personal relationships are another key of reducing prejudice in society. By forming personal relationships, people can find out that some of the prejudices and stereotypes they had of a certain group may not be true. But this condition may vary for the opponent may have the stereotypical characteristics of that certain group. Lastly prejudice can be reduced through seeking common goals. As a community, once a goal is set and achieved, the achievements are shared among those inside the community. This develops a form of bonding and grouping within the group as well, making it questionable if this is a true way of getting rid of prejudice and stereotyping since it is creating a new social identity. (Jiskha) In January 3, 2011, a more recent research on how to overcome prejudices was announced by Rodolfo Mendoza- Denton from the University of California, Berkley. Although many of RodolfoÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas were similar to that of the solutions mentioned in Robert S. FeldmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Psycygology, there were some significant concepts that Rodolfo had found out. One of his concepts consists of the common in-group identity model, which shows that humans are able to recategorize themselves according to interests, features, or characteristics that they share. Once they have recategorized themselves, they are more tightly bonded and understand each other within the people inside the group even though they might have been people from two different groups that once were prejudice and hostile to each other. Another major difference from RodolfoÃ¢â¬â¢s solution and FeldmanÃ¢â¬â¢s solution is that Rodolfo claims that the behavior of humans in a neutral state is critical in the effect of prejudice towards each other. To reduce prejudice among groups, Rodolfo suggested that approaching other groups in a different manner will greatly affect the presence of prejudice in two opposing groups. If approached in a manner of trying to get along, it is hard for prejudice to happen in the contact of the two groups. But by raising awareness of the stereotypes and having a negative view of the opposing group from the beginning, prejudice and stereotyping is likely to be present in this situation. (Greater Good) Work Cited (Psychology Today) Chen Ph. D, Lisa. The Psychology of Prejudice and Racism. Psychology Today . Sussex Publishers, LLC, 24 Jan. 2011. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. http://www. psychologytoday. com/blog/handy-psychology-answers/201101/the-psychology-prejudice-and-racism. (Jiskha) David A. Gershaw, Ph. D. Homework Help: Social Studies: Psychology: Reducing Prejudice. Jiskha Homework Help. David A. Gershaw, Ph. D. , n. d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. ( AS Psychology) GROSS, R. (1999) Key Studies in Psychology, 3rd Edition. London: Hodder and Stoughton BANYARD, P. AND GRAYSON, A. (2000) Introducing Psychological Research; Seventy Studies that Shape Psychology, 2nd Edition. London: Macmillan (Greater Good) Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton. Greater Good. The Top 10 Strategies for Reducing Prejudice. University of California Berkeley, 3 Jan. 2011. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.